Atidarinėju tą dėžutę – I am opening / I am trying to open that can (at the moment) ("atidarau" is also possible as "I am opening"). In modern Lithuanian this mood is not very widely used, because other ways of expressing uncertainty and fictional events exist. The subject of the active voice is converted to the passive voice using its possessive genitive form (hence aš, tu (I, you) converts not into manęs, tavęs, but mano, tavo): Vaikus pagimdei tu, bet užauginau aš → Vaikai buvo tavo pagimdyti, bet mano užauginti. For example, a word that provides new information (rheme, or comment) has tendency to be postponed after other words, but not always to the end of the sentence. Pronominal forms: didỹsis, didžióji, dešinỹsis, dešinióji. [2] The data does not include verbal abstracts ending in -imas, -ymas, -umas (for instance, metimas 'a throwing; a throw' from mesti 'to throw'); 18.7 thousand in numbers (12 thousand of the first accentuation paradigm, 6 thousand of the second), because they can be made from any verb. kòpinti – to copy, which is used besides longer standard kopijuoti. The dual number indicates a pair of things. inflected language in which the relationships between parts of speech and their In almost all of these cases, a simple adjective can be used, but it will mean a completely different thing: juoda jūra (instead of Juodoji jūra) means any sea that is black (not necessarily the particular sea in Eastern Europe); dėmėta pelėda (instead of dėmėtoji pelėda) means any owl that has dots on its plumage (not necessarily an owl of the Strix occidentalis species) etc. to cut, fell (by axe); cross, traverse; strike, smite; pitch in (food), to get / have enough of space for oneself: be contained, go into, to be getting into / through smth. Stems that have neither -ė- suffix nor palatalization in the present tense. They can be active or passive. Moreover, certain grammatical categories (like past iterative tense) automatically negate any perfectiveness a certain verb might have in infinitive or in other tenses. ¹This form for all persons can expressed using the passive (invariable) neuter gender participle bū́ta instead of the active participle bùvęs, usually for intransitive verbs: Prieš tai mes buvome [buvę] apsilankę muziejuje → Prieš tai mūsų būta apsilankyta muziejuje. The fourth accentuation paradigm can be result of a shift of the third paradigm. Consequently, the suffix is -t-in- for such adjectives. fall on smth., smb. The accentuation of all persons always corresponds to the accentuation of the 3rd person. Inchoative tenses are not a part of common Lithuanian speech, their use is limited to literary language and even there only past inchoative tense is ever used. → (more common) Vyriausybė turi skatinti pilietinę visuomenę. Local, causal or temporal adjuncts are typical parts of the initial complementary words group, while other complementary words are put to the final group. širdìs - heart, obelìs - apple tree, smegenys pl. -is and -ys words differ in that, that -is words (with the short i sound) are stressed on the stem (I, II accentuation patterns) and -ys words (with the same, but long sound) are stressed on the ending (III, IV accentuation patterns). The difference in those cases is only semantic (water cannot be healed, thus it is accepted that gydomasis vanduo denotes water having healing properties, but not water being healed). There is a frequent verb with a consonant of an end of a stem palatalized in the present tense. Kaime bijodavo vilkų → Kaime būdavo bijoma vilkų – Village [people] used to fear wolves → Wolves used to be feared by village [people]. to drive, direct; drive, go (on foot, by train, etc. Every Lithuanian verb belongs to one of three different conjugations: In Lithuanian every single verbal form can be derived from three stems: infinitive, 3rd person present tense and 3rd person past tense. But sometimes, when a word doesn't have the singular number, being a plurale tantum noun, the plural form doesn't indicate real singularity or plurality of the denoted object(s). Future passive participles are rare in modern speech. In the -i conjugation type, the 1st person of singular loses the final stem vowel -i, but the last stem consonant becomes palatalized (the sound [ɪ] is absent in nóriu [n̪ôːrʲʊ], the letter i merely denotes palatalization). Very rare; masculine nouns; four³ feminine; all are suffixed by -en-, výras - man, male, pienas - milk, skruostas - cheek, vė́jas - wind, šilójas - heather, ling; veikė́jas - agent, actor, vartótojas - consumer, brólis - brother, sotis - satiety, gruodis - December, kūjis - hammer, dilbis - forearm, jautis - bull, ox, pojūtis - sense, sensation, sõdas - garden, metas - specific time (to do smth, for smth), padas - sole, metatarsus, ginklas - weapon, varžtas - screw, kuras - fuel, galvijas - cow (cattle); yahoo, šalavijas - salvia, sage, žõdis - word, skonis - taste, lygis - level, kelis - knee, medis - tree, valgis - dish, meal, karštis - heat, stógas - roof, óras - weather, žándas - face part down from cheekbone, kalnas - mountain, beržas - birch, aidas - echo, augalas - plant, arklỹs - horse, pavyzdỹs - example, obuolỹs - apple, krãštas - region; edge, strazdas - trush, ledas - ice, penas - food, pabulum, sniegas - snow, vardas - name, kulnas - heel, laikas - time, dugnas - bottom, (4) kraũjas - blood, pelėjaĩ pl. Some of the alternative accentuation patterns of a word are used equally (then they are given not in brackets here), some are known from dialects, not preferred (then they are given in brackets). Note, that a sentence can lack any part of the structure, except the rheme. Personal pronouns aš (I), tu (you) jis (he, it), ji (she, it) are declined as follows: The reflexive pronoun savęs is declined like tu (savęs - sau - save ...), but it does not have the singular nominative and plural cases. → Čia nerūkoma! Unlike nouns, which have two genders – masculine and feminine, adjectives have three (except -is, -ė adjectives), but the neuter adjectives (the third example in the table) have only one form and are not inflected. Duktė 'daughter' is the only word of the fifth declension, not having an ending uo. All the adjectives (except most -inis type adjectives) can have pronominal (definite) forms that cannot acquire the neuter form: The pronominal adjectives historically have developed from the combination of the simple adjectives and the respective pronominal forms jis, ji (he, she), that is, gẽras + jìs = geràsis; an example in locative case (feminine gender): gražiosè + josè = gražiósiose. But in many more cases the dual was reduced to a nominal category explicitly indicating a pair of things, but not requiring dual agreement of adjectives or verbs. lacking orientation in it, to blush; to attract attention by being red. In the tables below the possibilities of syllable nucleus of the next-to-last syllable and their accent is shown. 3b – silts, sediments carried by a water stream. Adjectival participles have all the adjectival characteristics: three genders (masculine, feminine, neuter), pronominal forms, mostly identical declension and sometimes even degrees of comparison. E.g. – You gave birth to the children, but I raised them → The children were given birth by you, but raised by me. If the stem ends with a consonant -t or -d, in the 1st person of singular it becomes -č or -dž respectively: kęsti to suffer → kentė he suffered → kenčiau I suffered; melsti to beg → meldė he begged → meldžiau I begged. For the verbs, that have start-firm accented mixed diphthongs -il-, -ir- in the pre-desinential syllable in the infinitive, the vowel i lengthens and receives the end-firm accent in the present tense, if the syllabe becomes open. Compare: geriamasis vanduo – drinking water. The indefinite number indicates that the same form of the word can be understood singular or plural, depending both on situation and on other words in the sentence. In contrast English contains just two: the present participle ("the eating cow") and the past participle ("the eaten cow"). Declinable forms (such as compound tenses and passive structures), however, must match according to gender and number. All of them require an auxiliary verb būti (to be) in its respective form and an active voice participle. Compound tenses are periphrastic structures having temporal meanings usually relative to actions indicated by other verbs. Sometimes the necessity participle can be used as well.