Dublin bus riders would be expected to extend an arm to indicate that they want the bus to stop for them. The United States also has an individualistic culture, meaning people place a high value on individuality and independence. Build a life in which you can create your own schedule, travel, try new things, etc. Values portray an ideal culture, the standards society would like to embrace and live up to. In modern-day Paris, many people shop daily at outdoor markets to pick up what they need for their evening meal, buying cheese, meat, and vegetables from different specialty stalls. Behavior based on learned customs is not a bad thing. As we interact with cultures other than our own, we become more aware of the differences and commonalities between others’ symbolic and material worlds and our own. A boy who shoves an elderly woman aside to board the bus first may receive frowns or even a scolding from other passengers. When people go against a society’s values, they are punished. It’s rare to see two male friends or coworkers holding hands in the United States where that behavior often symbolizes romantic feelings. That kind of behavior would be considered the height of rudeness in the United States, but in Mumbai it reflects the daily challenges of getting around on a train system that is taxed to capacity. Figure 1. Conversely, someone from a traditional Kolkata family might be perplexed with the idea of romantic love as the foundation for marriage and lifelong commitment. Typically, a passenger will find a marked bus stop or station, wait for his bus or train, pay an agent before or after boarding, and quietly take a seat if one is available. American teenagers are encouraged to value celibacy. In other nations and in other times, marriages have been arranged through an intricate process of interviews and negotiations between entire families, or in other cases, through a direct system, such as a “mail order bride.” To someone raised in New York City, the marriage customs of a family from Nigeria may seem strange or even wrong. Nonmaterial culture, in contrast, consists of the ideas, attitudes, and beliefs of a society. Children represent innocence and purity, while an adult who is youthful in appearance signifies sexual vitality. In India, 80% of the population practices the Hindu religion. Humans are social creatures. It’s important to note that geographical place is an important factor in culture—beliefs and practices, and society—the social structures and organization of individuals and groups. In many parts of Africa and the Middle East, it is considered normal for men to hold hands in friendship. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Individuals in a society have specific beliefs, but they also share collective values. How would a visitor from the suburban United States act and feel on this crowded Tokyo train? The objects or belongings of a group of people are considered material culture. It’s easy to value good health, but it’s hard to quit smoking. In other words, the way in which people view marriage depends largely on what they have been taught. Almost every human behavior, from shopping to marriage to expressions of feelings, is learned. Values are a culture’s standard for discerning what is good and just in society. A business manager who drives away customers will likely be fired. A school building belongs to material culture, but the teaching methods and educational standards within it are part of education’s nonmaterial culture. What happens when we encounter different cultures? In this example of commuting, culture consists of both intangible things like beliefs and thoughts (expectations about personal space, for example) and tangible things (bus stops, trains, and seating capacity). Festivals. For the believers of this religion, the... 2 - Industrial Revolution. But ideal culture differs from real culture, the way society actually is, based on what occurs and exists. Figure 2. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. Metro passes and bus tokens are part of material culture, as are automobiles, stores, and the physical structures where people worship, or engage in other recognizable patterns of behavior. Being familiar with unwritten rules helps people feel secure and “normal.” Also, perhaps such cultural traditions are comforting in that they seem to have already worked well enough for our forebears to have retained them. Metro passes and bus tokens are part of material culture, as are automobiles, stores, and the physical structures … A boy who helps an elderly woman board a bus may receive a smile and a “thank you.” A business manager who raises profit margins may receive a quarterly bonus. In contrast, many other cultures are collectivist, meaning the welfare of the group and group relationships is a primary value. The objects or belongings of a group of people are considered material culture. Shaped by this value, individuals spend millions of dollars each year on cosmetic products and surgeries to look young and beautiful. Values are not static; they vary across time and between groups as people evaluate, debate, and change collective societal beliefs. The first, and perhaps most crucial, elements of culture we will discuss are its values and beliefs. Employees may be encouraged to dress casually to encourage a feeling of equality and to encourage comfort and productivity. People positively sanction certain behaviors by giving their support, approval, or permission, or negatively sanction them by invoking formal policies of disapproval and nonsupport. Cultural beliefs, on the other hand, have played a role in the hindering of nursing practice. Historically, technological advances have led to cultural values being transformed. Beliefs are the tenets or convictions that people hold to be true. In this example of commuting, culture consists of both intangible things like beliefs and thoughts (expectations about personal space, for example) and tangible things (bus stops, trains, and seating capacity). Examples of cultural values 1 - Cows in India. However, the number of unplanned pregnancies among teens reveals that not only is the ideal hard to live up to, but the value alone is not enough to spare teenagers the potential consequences of having sex.